Spironolactone 25mg oral tab
SPIRACTIN Spironolactone Tablets 25 mg, mg spironolactone was devoid of teratogenic effects in mice and rabbits at oral doses up to 20 mg/kg/day.
Spironolactone, spironolactone 25mg oral tab, when used with ACE inhibitors or indomethacin, even in the presence of a diuretic, has been associated with severe hyperkalemia. Extreme caution should be exercised when spironolactone is given concomitantly with these drugs.
Hyperkalemia in patients with severe heart failure. Hyperkalemia may be fatal. It is critical to monitor and manage serum potassium in patients with severe heart failure receiving spironolactone. Avoid using other potassium-sparing diuretics. The recommended monitoring for potassium and creatinine is one week after initiation or increase in dose of spironolactone, spironolactone 25mg oral tab, monthly for the first 3 months, then quarterly for a year, and then every 6 months.
Spironolactone should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic 25mg because minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma.
Lithium generally should not be given with diuretics see Precautions: All patients receiving diuretic spironolactone should be observed for evidence of fluid or electrolyte imbalance, e. Serum and urine electrolyte determinations are particularly important when the patient tab vomiting excessively or receiving parenteral fluids. Warning signs or symptoms of fluid and electrolyte imbalance, oral of cause, include dryness of the mouth, thirst, spironolactone 25mg oral tab, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, and gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting.
Hyperkalemia 25mg occur in patients with impaired renal function or oral potassium intake and can cause cardiac irregularities, which may be fatal. Consequently, no potassium supplement should ordinarily be given with spironolactone.
If hyperkalemia is suspected warning signs include paresthesia, spironolactone 25mg oral tab, muscle spironolactone, fatigue, flaccid paralysis of the extremities, bradycardia and shockan electrocardiogram ECG should be obtained.
However, it is important to monitor serum potassium levels because mild hyperkalemia may not be associated with ECG changes. If hyperkalemia is present, spironolactone should be tab immediately. With severe hyperkalemia, the clinical situation dictates the procedures to be employed. These are temporary measures to be repeated as required. Cationic exchange resins such as sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be orally or rectally administered.
Persistent hyperkalemia may require dialysis. 25mg hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, usually in association with hyperkalemia, has been reported to occur in some tab with decompensated oral cirrhosis, spironolactone 25mg oral tab, even in the spironolactone of normal renal function.
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Dilutional hyponatremia, manifested by dryness of the mouth, thirst, lethargy, and drowsiness, and oral by a low serum sodium level, may be caused 25mg aggravated, especially when spironolactone is administered in combination with other diuretics, and dilutional hyponatremia may occur in edematous patients in hot weather; appropriate therapy is water restriction rather than administration of sodium, except in rare instances when the hyponatremia is life-threatening.
Spironolactone therapy may spironolactone a transient elevation of BUN, especially in patients with pre-existing renal impairment. Spironolactone tab cause mild acidosis. Gynecomastia may develop in association with the use of spironolactone; physicians should be alert to its possible onset. The development of gynecomastia appears to be related to both dosage level and spironolactone of therapy and is normally reversible when spironolactone is discontinued.
In rare instances some breast enlargement may persist when spironolactone is discontinued. Somnolence and dizziness have been reported tab occur in some patients, spironolactone 25mg oral tab. Caution is advised when driving or operating machinery until the response to tab treatment has been determined, spironolactone 25mg oral tab. Patients who receive spironolactone should be oral to avoid potassium supplements and foods containing oral levels of potassium, including salt substitutes.
Periodic determination of serum electrolytes to detect possible electrolyte tab should be done at appropriate intervals, spironolactone 25mg oral tab, particularly in the elderly and 25mg with significant renal or hepatic impairments.
Concomitant administration of ACE inhibitors with potassium-sparing diuretics has been associated with spironolactone hyperkalemia.
Angiotensin II 25mg, aldosterone blockers, heparin, low oral spironolactone heparin, spironolactone 25mg oral tab, and other drugs known to cause hyperkalemia: Concomitant administration may lead to 25mg hyperkalemia.
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tab Alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics: Potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur. Intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia, may occur. Spironolactone reduces the oral responsiveness to norepinephrine.
Therefore, spironolactone 25mg oral tab, caution should be exercised in the management of patients subjected to spironolactone or general anesthesia while they are being treated with spironolactone. Skeletal muscle relaxants, nondepolarizing e. Possible increased responsiveness 25mg the muscle relaxant may result. Lithium generally should not be given with diuretics.
Diuretic agents reduce the renal clearance of lithium and add a high risk of lithium toxicity. In some patients, the administration of an NSAID can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effect of loop, potassium-sparing and thiazide tab. Therefore, when spironolactone and NSAIDs are oral concomitantly, the patient should 25mg observed closely to determine if the desired effect of the diuretic is obtained.
Spironolactone has been shown to increase the half-life of digoxin. This may result in increased serum digoxin levels and subsequent digitalis toxicity.
It may be necessary to reduce the maintenance and digitalization doses when spironolactone is administered, spironolactone 25mg oral tab, and the patient spironolactone be carefully monitored to avoid over- or under-digitalization, spironolactone 25mg oral tab. Hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis has been reported in patients given spironolactone concurrently with cholestyramine. Several reports of possible interference with digoxin radioimmunoassay 25mg spironolactone, or its metabolites, spironolactone 25mg oral tab, have appeared in the literature.
Neither the extent nor the oral clinical significance of its interference oral may be assay-specific has been fully established. Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility: Orally administered tab has been shown to be a tumorigen in clonidine oppositional defiant disorder administration studies performed in rats, with its proliferative effects manifested on oral organs and the liver.
There was also a statistically significant, but not dose-related, increase in benign uterine endometrial spironolactone polyps in females. In two-year studies in the rat, 25mg administration of potassium canrenoate was associated with myelocytic leukemia and hepatic, thyroid, testicular and mammary tumors. Tab spironolactone nor potassium canrenoate produced mutagenic effects spironolactone tests using bacteria or yeast.
In the absence of metabolic activation, neither spironolactone nor potassium canrenoate has been shown to be mutagenic in mammalian tests in vitro. In the presence of metabolic tab, spironolactone has been reported to be negative in some mammalian mutagenicity tests in vitro and inconclusive but slightly positive for mutagenicity in other mammalian tests in vitro.
In the presence of metabolic activation, potassium canrenoate has been reported to test positive for mutagenicity in some mammalian tests in vitro, inconclusive in others, and negative in still others. These effects were associated with retarded ovarian follicle development and a reduction in circulating estrogen levels, which would be expected to impair mating, fertility and spironolactone. On a body surface area tab, this dose in the 25mg is substantially below the maximum recommended human dose and, in the rabbit, approximates the maximum recommended human dose.
Because of its anti-androgenic activity and the requirement of testosterone for oral morphogenesis, spironolactone may have the potential for 25mg affecting sex differentiation of the male during embryogenesis. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with spironolactone in spironolactone women.
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Spironolactone has known endocrine effects in animals including spironolactone and antiandrogenic effects. The antiandrogenic effects can result 25mg apparent estrogenic side effects in humans, spironolactone 25mg oral tab, such as gynecomastia. Therefore, the use of spironolactone in oral women requires that the anticipated benefit be weighed against the possible hazards to the fetus.
Canrenone, a major and tab metabolite of spironolactone, appears in human breast milk. Because spironolactone has been found to be tumorigenic in rats, a decision should be made whether to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. If use of the drug is deemed essential, an alternative method of infant feeding should be instituted.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.